Theresa Summer "Introduction" in Basic Issues in EFL Teaching and Learning chapter 1
- Make an overview of the headings of the different paragraphs in the text (like a table of contents) - this is meant to support your reading of the text
- Choose one of the nine methods/approaches and read more about it online.
1. Defining Method and Related Terms
Method and Approach, Design and Technique
- Method= how a particular task should be approached and carried out.
- Here= how a foreign language should be taught
- Three part distinction - 1. The teachers plan 2. How this plan is put into practice 3. Which theory of foreign language learners underlies the teachers plan.
- Anthony 1963: Techniques, Method and Approach
- Richards and Rodgers revision of Anthonys Model, draw a line between method and approach. Approach was coined to be more new and modern in comparison to more rigid and traditional methods. Approach = more pedagogic flexibility
Macrostrategy and Microstrategy
- No universal best method or approach exists.
- Kumaravadivelu 1994: Macrostrategy and Microstategy
- Macro strategic framework with 10 pedagogic guidelines rather than predefined methods, that take differences in situational contexts into consideration
- Microstategy describes classroom procedures: how diff. Macrostrategies are put into practice.
2. Categorizing Methods and Approaches
Language-, Learner- and Learning- Centred Methods
- Language centered methods: teaching linguistic items
- Learning centered methods: deal with pragmatic systems of the language such as the communicative use of language. Accomplishment of diff. Types of activities rather than traditional grammar exercises.
Interventionist versus Non-Interventionist Methods and Approaches
- Interface -
- Non-interface -
A Historical and Chronological Classification
- A list of methods put in order from then to now.
3. Traditional Methods from Translating to Drilling
The Grammar-Translation Method
- Grammar rules, translation of texts and words. Often literary texts. No creative or communicative language.
The Direct Method and Audiolingualism
- Direct Method: Inductive approach to language learning and oral communication. Pedagogic texts. Only the target language was spoken in the classroom, no use of mothertongue.
- Audiolingualism: based on behavioristic principles. Also sequential form of instruction of linguistic items and repetitive practice. Drilling and imitation played a key role.
4. Humanistic Methods and Alternative Ideas
Types and Features of Humanistic and Alternative Methods
- Learner is in focus
Total Physical Response
- James Asher:
- Incorporate bodily movement.
- Understanding language before speaking
- Developing understanding through bodily movement
- Not forcing speaking from students
- Georgi Lozanov:
- Learners are given new identity, special athmosphere is created through classroom arrangement and furniture and baroque music is played.
The Silent Way
- Special materials are used such as wall-charts, tapes, drawings, pictures, worksheets and so on. The teacher remain silent most of the time -> encourages listening and concentration
5.The communicative Shift
Communicative Language Teaching
The Natural Approach
Task-Based Language Teaching
The Postmethod Concept
Critique on the Postmethod Concept