Teaching Reading and Writing

Teaching Young Language Learners by Annamaria Pinter, Chapter 6


Subskills for reading

  • Decoding the word
  • Recognise the word
  • Say the word

Record keeping

Top-down processing (p.67)

  • Knowing a common phrase, thus decoding the whole sentence based on the first word or outstanding word.
  • Oral competence in their first language, helps them learn to read the new one, by recognising words from their word bank.

Deep orthography

  • More words who doesn’t sound like they look
  • (in shallow orthography, the words sound like they look)


Sight vocabulary

  • Knowing words as you see them


  • Letter-sound correspondence patterns
  • (songs and rhymes are great for learning this)
  • Noticing patterns of words who sounds and looks alike (nursery rimes)

Sentence level reading

  • When you read longer texts

Word level reading

  • Reading words as individually, not as part of a full sentence (slowly progresses into sentence level reading)
  • Working with vocabulary helps with sentence level reading later (also as you progress)



expository text pre-reading strategies

  1. Active relevant schema
  2. Tee-Teach or provide background information
  3. Identify and teach important vocabulary words
  4. Create a short discussions related to some aspect


  1. Present outline before reading
  2. Level of detail as needed
  3. Structure should match the text exactly
  4. Post on board/screen to provide paper outline

Semantic Maps and Concept Maps

Fill in the details during or post reading

Guided notes

  • Outlines
  • Semantic maps or concept maps
  • Structured notes
  • Fill in the word


  1. Pre-reading activity
  2. Three to five declarative statements
  3. Agree/Dissagree about the statements.
  4. Confirmations Post reading


The idea of splitting reading tasks into 3 phases have worked well in my own learning and reading. Pre-reading exercises makes it easier to go into the text, and makes it less likely for the student to give up, because of the difficulty of the text, as they already know some of the meaning. During-reading can sometimes distracting for me, as it takes me out of the process of reading, and during reading exercises is often something I do on the second time I read a text. I could imagine some students might have the same issue. The post-reading exercises, makes you work more in-depth with the text, and gives a clear understanding as one have the opportunity to share knowledge with other students, thus learning through teaching others, as well as receiving different viewpoints on understanding and meaning.

I enjoy the model, and as long as the different exercises vary from different texts - making the tasks fit the style of the text, and avoids being boring for the student.

Emil Alexander Holm Thorsen